Let’s assume that we are designing a power-saving device that requires two ceramic capacitors in series. The first capacitor is in series with a ground wire structure which connects the first capacitor to its negative terminal and the second to its positive terminal.
The second capacitor is also in series with a ground wire structure that connects the second capacitor to its positive terminal and the third to its negative terminal high voltage resistors. The second capacitor will draw a current until the current through the first resistor falls to zero and the current through the second resistor to zero. Therefore, the capacitor charged to a higher value than zero is in constant demand for some reason.
Capacitors in SeriesCapacitors in Series
Now let us return to our first design of a power saving device. Now we must realize that when we introduce multiple ceramic capacitors in series, we must make sure that we allow for a phase transition between the individual caps for each capacitor. This means that either one or two of the individual caps might fail. The failure of one or two would result in an overloaded condition across the group, and this could cause the device to act up.
The correct circuit design called for a power degradation factor of 0.35. The minimum voltage across the series configuration was selected to be four volts, and the ceramic capacitors had an R value of about three thousand volts. As an added safety feature we decided to include a ground wire in addition to the individual capacitors, so that any shorting across the unit would not short circuit the active components.
Thus, after we tested the device we discovered that the power degradation factor was less than thirty percent, the minimum voltage across the entire series configuration was six volts, and the R-value was about four thousand volts. This turned out to be very good, and we began using this design almost immediately.